In a recent paper researchers from South Tyrol (Italy) discovered a rapid method to check milk quality and geographic origin.
South tyrolean milk samples were collected from farms – using extensive grassland-based farming system- located at 1900 m (Aldino), 1050 m (Aurina) and 950 m (Vipiteno) asl. Milk from Milan was collected at 200 m asl from a farm characterized by an intensive farming system.
Milk samples were analyzed using spectroscopy and then subjected to Hotelling’s T2 statistics.
The results are shown in the image at the top of the this article. Samples from South Tyrol (farms located in Aldino-1900 m asl, Aurina-1050m asl and Vipiteno-950 m asl) are different from milk samples from Milan (located at 200 m asl). It is also possible to separate South tyrolean milk into two groups: the low altitude one (Aurina and Vipiteno) and the high altitude one (Aldino).
Infrared spectroscopy is rapid, simple to use, non destructive, economic and green tool. This scientific article demonstrated that can be used to simply differentiate South tyrolean milk from samples from different geographic origin (Milan, in this case). Moreover, it was possible to differentiate between milk produced in high altitude farms, from milk produced at low altitudes.
Asaduzzaman et al., “Short-wave near infrared spectroscopy for the quality control of milk”, Journal of near infrared spectroscopy, (2019), 0:1-7, https://doi.org/10.1177/0967033519872543
If you want to know more about statistics: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hotelling%27s_T-squared_distribution
Or about food fraud:
Or about South Tyrol: